Robert Gammage

Robert Gammage


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Robert Gammage was born into a working class family in Northampton in about 1820. His parents were staunch members of the local Conservative Club. After a brief education Gammage left school at the age of eleven and found work in the Rose and Crown public house. At the age of twelve he became a coach trimmer with a local coach builder. Soon afterwards he became a Radical after reading Common Sense by Tom Paine.

When Henry Hetherington arrived in Northampton to form a branch of the Working Men's Association, Gammage was one of the first people to join. He was further inspired by hearing Henry Vincent make a speech in Northampton. At the age of eighteen, Gammage obtained his first speaking experience at recruitment meetings in villages in the Northampton area.

In February 1840, Gammage decided to leave Northampton. After visiting London, Brighton, Portsmouth, Southampton and Salisbury he found temporary work in Sherbourne. A few weeks later he was on his travels again and over the next few months travelled 1,400 miles in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Wherever he went Gammage made contact with fellow Chartists. Gammage eventually found nine months work in Chelmsford, Essex. However, after nine months he was sacked when his employer discovered he was selling radical newspapers.

Back on the road Gammage met Thomas Cooper in Leicester, George Julian Harney in Sheffield and Fergus O'Connor in Leeds. Gammage gradually developed his public speaking skills and after a spell in Newcastle, he made his living by travelling around the country giving political lectures. An attempt to settle down by becoming a shoemaker came to an end when he was again sacked for his Chartist activities.

In 1852 Gammage joined with Bronterre O'Brien to help establish the National Reform League. In 1852 Gammage was elected to National Executive of the Chartist movement. However, he was a strong opponent of Physical Force and while on the Chartist executive constantly quarreled with Fergus O'Connor and Ernest Jones. Gammage lost the battle and in 1854 was ousted from the National Executive. Gammage had been working on a History of the Chartist Movement for several years. The first edition was published in 1855. Gammage continued to work on the book and a more detailed second edition was published after his death.

After a period working as an insurance agent, Robert Gammage qualified as a doctor in Newcastle. He worked in the Newcastle Infirmary for many years and then opened a medical practice in Sunderland. After his retirement in 1887 he moved back to Northampton where he died on 7th January, 1888, after an accident when he fell off a tram.

That O'Connor had a desire to make the people happier, we never in our lives disputed. He would have devoted any amount of work for that purpose; but there was only one condition on which he would consent to serve the people - the condition was, that he should be their master; and in order to become so, he stopped to flatter their most unworthy prejudices, and while telling them that they ought to depend upon his judgment, he at the same time assured them that it was not he who had given them knowledge, but that on the contrary, it was they who had conferred on him what knowledge he possessed.

No other man ever stooped to flatter them so much. This was one of the secrets of his great popularity; but it was a popularity which was as unsettled as the waves. It swelled, and bubbled, and foamed for a while, only to recede, and to be lost to its former possessor. An excessive hankering after popularity, purchased at whatever price, was the great mistake of O'Connor's life. It led him to lend his influence, whenever the time arrived, to knock down every man who promised to rival him in the people's estimation.

In 1848 almost every country was now in the throes of revolution; and as each post brought news of the risings and triumphs of the people in Austria, Prussia, the minor German, and many of the Italian states, so appeared to increase the determination of the Chartists to establish the long cherished principles for which they had struggled.

John Street was, on the 27th March the scene of another great gathering. W. J. Vernon presided over a densely packed meeting. He expressed his disgust at the folly and farce of petitioning, which he pronounced as a mockery. He was for giving the House of Commons only one hour to consider whether they would grant the Charter. This sentiment was loudly cheered. John Skelton read a written speech, urging the meeting to moral force, but was compelled to leave off reading.


Robert Gammage - History

The Robert A. Gammage Collection contains materials relating to the personal life and political career of Robert A. Gammage. These materials include documents, articles, publications, campaign materials, advertisements, audiocassettes, videocassettes, photographs, and correspondence. This collection has educational certificates and documents related to Robert A. Gammage’s formal education. The collection contains many books and publications on past U.S. and Texas political leaders. The majority of the documents in the collection relate to Gammage’s official business as a public servant, including his professional correspondence along with other state and federal information. A large portion of the collection includes campaign correspondence, promotional flyers, posters, and advertisements from Robert A. Gammage’s various campaigns for state and federal public office along with promotional campaign materials for Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, Hilary Clinton, John Kerry, Wesley Clark, and Barak Obama. The hundreds of photographs that are part of the collection picture Gammage and his colleagues from the 1960s through the 2000s, showing him with the Texas House of Representatives, Texas Senate, United States Congress, Texas Court of Appeals, and Texas Supreme Court. A finding aid is available in the repository and online.

From his service in the Texas legislature. Finding aid in repository.

In the Congressional Election, 1976 papers, 0.5 linear foot.

This collection consists of campaign material from Houston’s 1976 Congressional election. The two races were between Bob Gammage and Ron Paul and between Nick Gearhart and Bob Eckhardt.

In the Houston Oral History Project, 1977, 1 audio tape.

An oral history interview with Congressman Robert Gammage conducted by Louis Marchifava on March 11, 1977.

1990, 1 commercial on 1 videocassette.

The commercial was used during Robert Gammage's campaign for a 1990 judge election in Texas, Democratic Party.


In Memoriam: Robert A. Gammage, 1938-2012

Austin, Texas – The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin mourns the passing of Robert A. Gammage, whose career featured service in all three branches of the Texas government, including the Texas House of Representatives, the Texas Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, Austin’s Third Court of Appeals and the Texas Supreme Court. The Briscoe Center is home to Gammage’s personal and professional papers.

“Bob Gammage will be remembered as a public servant par excellence,” said Don Carleton, executive director of the Briscoe Center. “His efforts on behalf of the citizens of Texas serve as a reminder that integrity, skill and tenacity can change our society for the betterment of all.

“Bob was a great friend to the Briscoe Center, contributing his efforts to building our congressional and political collections,” Carleton continued. “His efforts also made it possible for us to acquire the late U.S. Senator Ralph Yarborough’s historically valuable Texana and Civil War collection. On a personal note, Bob was a friend of mine for nearly forty years and his passing is a personal as well as a professional loss. He will be missed.”

Gammage was a member of the corruption-fighting “Dirty Thirty,” a bipartisan group formed in the 1970s to fight special interest control of the state’s political offices and institutions. During his tenure in the Texas House Gammage supported groundbreaking environmental legislation, equal rights for women, voting rights for 18-year-olds, and statewide single-member legislative districts. As a state senator, he helped make major progress in government reform, human rights, and consumer and health care legislation. In the U.S. Congress, he served on the major energy, health and technology committees, winning major battles for his Texas constituents.

A native of Houston, Gammage earned degrees from Del Mar College, the University of Corpus Christi, Sam Houston State University, the University of Texas School of Law and the University of Virginia School of Law. He served in both the U.S. Army and Navy, and was a Captain (Retired) in the U.S. Naval Reserve, where he served in both the Intelligence Service and the Judge Advocate General (JAG) Corps. He also served as a consultant to the Department of Energy and as an assistant attorney general. When not serving in public office, Gammage worked as an attorney in private practice and was a professor of law at a number of academic institutions, including St. Edward’s University, Texas State University, Sam Houston State University and the South Texas College of Law.

The Robert A. Gammage Papers span 1971 to 1995, and document his career as a politician, lawyer and judge. The papers include extensive legislative research and case files, which cover Gammage’s terms in the Texas House of Representatives (1971-1973) and Senate (1973-1976) the United States House (1977-1979) the Texas Court of Appeals (1982-1990) and the Texas Supreme Court (1990-1995). The concerns of Gammage’s Houston constituency are evident in their letters and Gammage’s work on energy issues.

For more information, contact Erin Purdy, associate director for publications, the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, 512-495-4692.

COVID-19 Information

With the exception of the main exhibition galleries in Sid Richardson Hall, the Briscoe Center for American History is temporarily closed to visitors due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This policy applies to the center's reading room and off-campus divisions, which include the Briscoe-Garner Museum, the Sam Rayburn Museum, and Winedale. Our staff are working remotely and continue to monitor online queries and requests. Updates to this policy will be posted on our "Visit" page.

We currently are providing remote reference services via email, phone, or teleconference, as well as duplication/digitization services. Contact us (below) and select "Reference" from the dropdown to request assistance.


--> Gammage, Robert A.

Robert Alton (Bob) Gammage, born in Houston in 1938, served Texans in five elective offices: Texas State Representative (1971-1973), Texas State Senator (1973-1976), U.S. Representative (1977-1979), Texas Court of Appeals Judge (Austin, 1982-1991), and Texas Supreme Court Justice (1991-1995).

From the description of Gammage, Robert A., papers, 1971-1995. (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 56099841

Robert Alton Gammage, 1938-, born in Houston, served Texas in a variety of elective offices, such as Texas State Representative, Texas Senator, United States Representative, Texas Court of Appeals Justice (Austin), and Texas Supreme Court Justice. After serving in the military from 1969 to 1979, Gammage practiced law privately in Houston. He began his political career in 1970 when he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives. In 1972, Gammage became a Texas Senator and attended the Texas Constitutional Convention, before running for the U. S. House in 1976. A Democrat, he was associated with environmental, health care, and election reform issues. In the House, he was concerned with energy issues, and later worked as a special consultant for the United States Department of Energy. After leaving Congress, Gammage served as an Assistant Attorney General of Texas and a consultant to the U. S. Department of Energy.

In 1982, Gammage was elected to the Texas Court of Appeals, and in 1990 won a statewide election to the Texas Supreme Court. As a judge, Gammage was known as a defender of civil liberties. Gammage retired in 1995 to practice law privately and teach. He has taught at Sam Houston State, Texas State, South Texas College of Law, University of Corpus Christi, and Texas A&M Corpus Christi.

Source: “Gammage, Robert Alton.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed March 6, 2012. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=d000036.

From the guide to the Gammage (Robert A. ) Papers 96-322 97-230 2008-318 2010-106., 1971-1995, (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin)


Robert Gammage - History

Robert Alton Gammage, 1938-2012, born in Houston, served Texas in a variety of elective offices, such as Texas State Representative, Texas Senator, United States Representative, Texas Court of Appeals Justice (Austin), and Texas Supreme Court Justice. After serving in the military from 1969 to 1979, Gammage practiced law privately in Houston. He began his political career in 1970 when he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives. In 1972, Gammage became a Texas Senator and attended the Texas Constitutional Convention, before running for the U. S. House in 1976. A Democrat, he was associated with environmental, health care, and election reform issues. In the House, he was concerned with energy issues, and later worked as a special consultant for the United States Department of Energy. After leaving Congress, Gammage served as an Assistant Attorney General of Texas and a consultant to the U. S. Department of Energy.

In 1982, Gammage was elected to the Texas Court of Appeals, and in 1990 won a statewide election to the Texas Supreme Court. As a judge, Gammage developed a reputation as a defender of civil liberties. Gammage retired in 1995 to practice law privately and teach. He taught at Sam Houston State, Texas State, South Texas College of Law, University of Corpus Christi, and Texas A&M Corpus Christi. Gammage passed away in September 2012 at the age of 74.

Source: “Gammage, Robert Alton.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed March 6, 2012. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=d000036.

Scope and Contents

Printed material, notes, correspondence, photographs, and audio materials comprise the Robert A. Gammage Papers, 1971-1995, which document Robert Gammage’s career as a politician, lawyer, and judge. The papers include extensive legislative research and case files, which document Bob Gammage’s terms in the Texas House of Representatives (1971-1973) and Senate (1973-1976) the United States House (1977-1979) the Texas Court of Appeals (1982-1990) and the Texas Supreme Court (1990-1995). The concerns of Gammage’s Houston constituency are evident in their letters and Gammage’s work on energy issues. The Texas Supreme Court records within Gamage’s papers are arranged according to a numerical system created by Gammage’s office.

Arrangement

Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Case, project, and office files are restricted until 2053 contact repository for information.


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Gammage, Robert G—

The middle name is given as George in later editions.

GAMMAGE, ROBERT G—— (d. 1888), chartist leader and historian, born at Northampton in 1815, was apprenticed to a coach builder, and began his political career at the early age of seventeen, when he became a member of the Working Men's Association. He was a deputy to the national convention of 1838, convened to discuss the revolutionary programme, and in 1842 devoted himself to the work of lecturing on behalf of chartist principles in order to revive the spirit of the country. After two years of this work he settled at Northampton, and became chartist secretary for the district. In this capacity he was brought into frequent contact with Feargus O'Connor, whom he opposed. At this time he was by trade a shoemaker. In 1848, losing his employment at Northampton on account of his political propagandism, he removed to Birmingham. In 1852 he was the ‘nominated’ chartist parliamentary candidate at Cheltenham, but did not go to the poll. In 1853 he was elected into the paid executive of the National Charter Association, but next year failed to secure re-election. In 1854 he published his ‘History of the Chartist Movement,’ a work of no ability, but moderate in tone and of considerable interest. After some years of study he qualified as a medical man, in which capacity he practised, first as assistant to Dr. Heath of Newcastle, and then alone at Sunderland. He died at Northampton 7 Jan. 1888.

[Gammage's Hist. of the Chartist Movement Place MSS. Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, 14 Jan. 1888 private information.]


Gammage’s index of Chartists

Robert Gammage was both a prominent Chartist and the first real historian of Chartism. Written in 1854 and published the following year, his History of the Chartist Movement 1837-1854 set the tone for 100 years of Chartist history.

Gammage (pictured right) was born around 1820 in Northampton, and became active in politics after Henry Hetherington of the London Working Men’s Association visited the town to form an offshoot of the organisation there. As a young man, he swiftly gained experience as a public speaker before departing in 1840 on a journey around England that would bring him into contact with many of the leading figures within Chartism.

In 1852, Gammage was elected to the executive of the National Charter Association after Ernest Jones effectively took control of the organisation. However, he was out of sympathy with Jones and his increasingly socialist faction and joined James Bronterre O’Brien to establish the short-lived National Reform League.

After a chequered career in which he was frequently forced to move on because of his Chartist activities, Gammage became first an insurance agent and later a doctor, practising in Newcastle for the best part of 30 years. He retired in 1887 and returned to his home town of Northampton, where he died the following year after falling from a tram.

Written so soon after the events in describes, and by an author who had participated in many of them, Gammage’s book is by no means an impartial account of Chartism. He abhorred Feargus O’Connor, and this much is plain from his writing. However, Gammage was trying to write history rather than polemic, and though he cannot hide his views, the story of the Chartist movement is presented as fairly and accurately as he could manage.

Gammage himself described the book as “principally a record of, rather than a commentary upon events, and the men engaged in them”, although he conceded that he would not hesitate “make any observations which may appear to be necessary, for the historian should not be a mere recorder of the actions of men, but should also search into, examine and give his candid opinion as to the springs of those actions, and the manner in which they have been performed”.

The history was first published in 1854 – at a time when Chartism was still very much alive, as a consequence of which it does not deal with its final stages. The author continued to work on the book, however, and a second, revised edition was published in 1894, some years after his death. This account has heavily influenced later historians of Chartism, and is required reading for anyone wanting to understand how Chartism developed and how its leading personalities related to each other. And it is from this edition that the index of names below is taken.

The index was drawn up after Gammage’s death by a Sunderland solicitor, Thomas Marshall. The version carried here includes the names of all individuals from the original index, but omits other entries, for towns and cities, events and so on. Marshall’s index is far from complete – individuals appear in the body of the book but not in his index. But it is a valuable starting point for family historians in particular.

Page references here related to the 1894 edition, as reprinted in facsimile edition by The Merlin Press in 1969.
Abinger, Lord, trials before, 240 ferocity of, 241
Able, Alfred, trial of, 338
Adams, James, opposes O’Connor at Glasgow, 353
Ainley, G., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Aitken, Willia, Trial of, 235
Allinson, John, 237
Angus, W., trial of, 343
Argue, H., trial of, 338
Armitage, Cornelius, arrested, 151
Armitage, Isaac, jun., arrested, 151
Armitage, Isaac, sen., arrested, 151
Ashtron, William, tiral of, 178, 262 opposes O’Connor, 263
Aston, Thomas, sentenced to death, 152
Atkinson, R., arrested, 333 tried 337
Atwood, Thomas, MP for Birmingham, 15 speech at Glasgow, 21, 42 advocates National Strike, 43 presents petition to Parliament, 138
Aust, James, trial of, 165
Ayr, James, speech at Newcastle, 24 at Birmingham, 82 arrested, 149 trial, 174

Bailie, Hugh Craig, elected to Convention
Bairstow, Jonathan, speech by, 209, 210 arrested, 228 tried, 237
Bairstow, W., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Ball, David, trial of, 179
Barker, Joseph, trial of, 178
Barnett, trial of, 180
Bartholomew, James, trial of, 175
Bartlett, trial of, 180
Beaumont, Augustus, character of, 15
Beesley, William, trial of, 237
Bell, John, arrested, 151 sentenced, 174
Benbow, William, 152 trial of, 179
Benfield, Richard, trial of, 165 sentenced to death, 169
Bennison, Joseph, committed, 173 tried, 175
Bentley, Samuel, committed, 173
Binns, George, his character, 32 speech, 34 arrested, 148 trial of, 181 death, 401
Bland, J., trial of, 337
Bolwell, trial of, 180
Booker, Thomas, committed, 173 tried, 175
Booth, Timothy, arrested, 152
Bottomley, T., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Bowker, Charles, trial of, 343
Bowler, A., trial of, 337
Bowring, Dr., 5,6
Bradley, John, committed, 152 tried, 158
Bradley, R., trial of, 337
Bramwich, H.H., 214
“Brassier, Simon de,” 361
Brewster, Rev. Patrick, 84
Briton, James, arrested, 151
Briton, Solomon, trial of, 165
Brook, Robert, trial of, 235
Brooke, William, trial of, 176
Brougham, Lord, 4
Brown, Dillon, 52 arrested, 122
Brushworth, George, arrested, 151
Bryne, arrested, 172 tried, 181
Burn, W., trial of, 338
Burns elected to the Convention, 70
Bussey, Peter, his character, 66 at Glasgow, 121
Butterfield, H., trial of, 337
Butterworth, William, trial of, 178

Cairns, S., arrested, 337
Campbell, Alexander, 298
Campbell, John, arrested, 228
Cardo, William, elected to Convention, 67
Carpenter, William, editor of “Charter” 19 elected to Convention, 65
Carrier, William, elected to Convention, 68 presentation to, 79 trial of, 152, 180
Carrigan, M., arrested, 337
Cardledge, informer, 233
Cherry, arrested, 172
Clark arrested, 172
Clayford, Joshua, trial of, 175
Clayton, John, committed, 173 tried, 175
Cobbett, William, opposition to Poor Law, 4, 62
Cobden, Richard, 253 discussion with O’Connor, 254
Cockerham, J., trial of, 337
Cockburn, speech at Newcastle, 137
Coleridge, Justice, 174, 175
Collins, John, 15 speech by, 35 at Liverpool, 81 arrested, 133 trial of, 151 sentenced, 152 release of, 184 banquet to, 185 death of, 401
Connor, W., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Cooper, Thomas, history of, 201 “Lion of Freedom”, 203 and O’Brien, 204 “Shakesperian General”, 226 arrested at Burslem, 228 trial, 229, 240 “Purgatory of Suicides”, 240, 273 at Leicester, 242 plan for Annual Conference, 244 refuses to join O’Connor, 273, 347 proposes resolutions, 274, 280 attacks O’Connor’s Land Plan, 276, 277, 278 expelled Leeds Conference, 280
Copley, George, arrested 333 tried 337
Cox, Robert, trial of 175
Crabtree, John, trial of, 178 again arrested, 333 tried, 337
Crawford, Sharman MP, 5, 7 plan of obstruction, 253, 284
Cuffay, W., 308, 317 arrested, 338 tried, 340 transported, 340

Darwin, J., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Davidson, F.R., trial of, 178
Davies, Charles, arrested, 151 tried, 158
Deegan, elected to Convention, 67 arrested, 152
Deolin, P., arrested, 337 tried, 343
Devyr, Thomas, arrested, 149
Dickinson, sentenced, 152
Disraeli, Benjamin, speech on Petition in Parliament, 141
Donovan, D., arrested, 337 tried, 343
Doubleday, speech at Newcastle, 23 death of, 401
Dowlan, J., arrested, 337 tried, 343
Downe, J., arrested, 333 tried 337
Dowling, W., trial of, 180
Doyle, C., arrested, 152 tried, 178, 237
Drake, Thomas, trial of, 176
Duffy, trial of, 175
Duke, James, trial of, 180
Durham, John, 235
Duncan, Abraham, elected to Convention, 70 speech at Aberdeen, 81 and O’Connor, 84, 115 emigrates, 401
Duncombe, T., MP, presents Petition to Parliament, 209 motion in Parliament, 241 tour of, with O’Connor, 251 presentation to, 253 returned for Finsbury, 284

Edmonds, Edmund, trial of, 165
Edwards, trial of, 152, 178
Elliott, Ebenezer, 47, 48 death of, 401
Ellis, H., arrested, 337
Ellis, William, conviction of, 229
England, I., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Erle, Justice, 343
Essler, Rev. W., arrested, 152
Evans, arrested, 172

Fairplay, J., trial of, 158
Fay, trial of, 338 transported, 340
Fell, T., trial of, 337
Fenny, elected to Convention, 67 arrested, 152
Fielden, John, 61 character of, 63
Fife, Sir Joh, 149
Finnigan, J., arrested, 337
Fletcher, Dr, 114
Fox, Charles, trial of, 175
Fraser, John, 48, 84
Frith, Nathaniel, trial of, 343
Frost, John, character of, 69 and Lord Russell, 106 at Blackwood, 116 at Glasgow, 118 at Newport, 162 arrested, 163 tried, 165 sentenced to death, 169 sentence reduced, 170 conditional pardon, 256
Frost, Henry, arrested 163
Fussell, arrested, 122 tried, 335

Gammage, R.G., 97, opposes O’Connor’s land scheme, 247 and the Manchester Council, 259 history of, 387 and Ernest Jones, 395
Gill, William, elected to Convention, 67 sppech by, 118
Glennan, T., arrested, 333
Graham, James, 303
Greenslade, G., trial of, 338
Griffin, hostile witness, 235
Guest, arrested, 134
Gullimore, George, trial of, 175
Gurney, Baron, conduct of, 230
Gurney, William, arrested, 338
Halley, elected to Convetnion, 70
Hallings, J., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Harewood, Earl of, 113
Harney, George Julian, elected to first Convention, 28 his character, 29 physical force advocacy, 109 arrested, 134 oration at Holberry’s grave, 215 editor of “Northern Star”, 229 trial, 235 attacks Lord Palmerston’s foreign policy, 284 and O’Connor, 344 advocates Republicanism, 344 dispute with Ernest Jones, 383
Harrison, spy, 176
Harrison, Christopher, 254
Hatslead, F., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Haynau, General, in England, 355
Heaton, J., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Hetherington, Henry, his character, 7 death of, 349
Heyworth, Laurence, 243
Higgins, Timothy, arrested, 151 tried, 158
Hill, Rev. William, Editor Northern Star, 17, 190, 218, 241
Hobb, arrested, 172
Hobson, Joshua, 190 scheme of, 248
Hodgetts, speech at Manchester, 61
Hoey, Peter, trial of, 178
Holberry, Samuel, committed, 173 trial, 175 death of, 213 public funeral, 214
Holdsworth, James and Paul, trial of, 176
Holmes, John, trial of, 158
Holroyd, D., trial of, 337
Holyoake, G.J., 349, 379
Howell, Jeremiah, sentenced to death, 152
Hume, J., 5, 7 his party, 347
Hunt, Henry, trial of, 343
Hutton, trial of, 178

Ibbetson, T., trial of, 343
Ickersgill, Isaac, arrested, 333 tried, 337

Jackson, of Macclesfield, trial of, 180
Jackson, Rev. W., arrested, 152 trial of, 178
Jefferson, Isaac, trial of, 343
Jenkinson, Rev. John, 37
Johnson, General, supports petition, 142
Johnson, George, trial of, 237
Johnson, Isaac, arrested, 152 trial, 180
Jones, Charles, elected to Convention, 70 death of, 151
Jones, Ernest, moves Cooper’s expulsion from Conference, 280 history of, 281 speeches by, 299, 329 trial of, 335 dishonourable conduct of, 360 attacks O’Connor, 361 his leadership, 381 conflict with Harney, 383 contests Halifax, 391
Jones, John, sentenced to death, 152 conditional pardon of, 256
Jones, T., trial of, 338
Jones, William, arrested, 163 tried, 169 speech by, 211 again arrested, 229

Kaye, John, trial of, 178
Kelly, Fitzroy, Counsel for Frost, 167
Kilvington, T., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Knox, elected to Convention, 67
Kossuth, L., in England, 377 and O’Connor, 378
Kydd, Samuel, 286, 331, 341, 350

Lacey, W., trial of, 338
Leach, James, 184, 211 arrested, 228 tried, 238 again arrested, 337
Leader, J. Temple, 5, 6 speech by, 50 motion by, in Parliament, 170
Leaman, J., arrested, 337
Leatherland of Kettering, 117
Lee, E., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Leeming, J., trial of, 337
Leno, J.B., 346
Lightowler, D., trial of, 343
Linden, D., trial of, 343
Lingard, Joseph, trial of, 175
Linney, Joseph, arrested, 229
Livesey, John, arrested, 152 trial, 180
Livings, arrested, 172
Looney, Francis, trial of, 335
Lovel, John, trial of, 165 sentenced to death, 169
Lovett, William, Secretary of Association, 6 his character, 10 at Westminster, 47 elected to Convention, 53 signs Birmingham resolutions, and is arrested, 133 tried, 151 sentenced, 152 released, 184 and the Bill of Rights, 243 death of, 401
Lowe, trial of, 180
Lowery, Robert, speech at Newcastle, 26 elected to first Convention, 28 his character, 29 speech by, 48 at Liverpool, 81, 115 at Glasgow, 121 refused hearing in Dublin, 159

Macauley, Lord, opposes petition, 209
Mair, elected to Convention, 70
Mantle, G.J., at Manchester, 357
Markham, John, 203
Marsden, John, trial of, 175
Marsden, Richard, character of, 65, 108
Marshall, John, committed, 173 tried, 175
Martin, P., trial of, 338
Martin, William, trial of, 158
Mason, John, arrested at Newcastle, 149 trial, 174 speech by, 211 arrested at Stafford, 227 presentation to, 349 emigrates, 349
Massey, Gerald, 346
Matthew, elected to Convention, 70
McCartney, Bernard, trial of, 237
McFarlan, John, 213
McManus, sentenced to death, 342
M’Douall, Dr., character, 66 committed, 152 trial, 158 release, 187 reward offered for, 228 escapes to France, 229 trial, 235 returns to England, 258 quarrel with O’Connor, 258
Meager, T.F., arrested, 299 trial, 332 sentenced to death, 342
Mealing, elected to Convention, 68
Meeke, Rev. J.C., 37
Melbourne, Lord, his Ministry, 192
Miall, at Birmingham, 243
Mills, elected to Conention, 68
Mitchell, James, arrested, 151 trial, 158
Mitchell, John, 296 arrested, 299, 310 transported 332
Molesworth, Sir William, 5, 6
Mooney, James, trial of, 235
Morgan, Jacob, trial of, 165 sentenced to death, 169
Morris, Charles, trial of, 179
Mortimer, Mary, arrested, 333
Murdin, Peter, trial of, 179
Murphy, deputation to Glasgow, 21

Napier, Col. William, 78 dispute with Vincent, 79
Napoleon III, 2, 79
Neesom, C.H., elected to Convention, 68 arrested, 172
Nugent, Lord, 349

Oastler, Richard, 55
O’Brien, James Bronterre, starts “Operative”, 18 his character, 71 history, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76 oratory of, 77 the petition, 90 opposes Free Trade, 103 speech by, 114 at Glasgow, 119 at Newcastle, 136 trial at Newcastle, 149, 174 arrested in London, 153 at Liverpool, 178 controversy with O’Connor, 192 at Leicester, 2003 and Cooper, 204 “British Statesmen”, 206 criticises Land Plan, 268 challenges O’Connor, 269 O’Connor’s treatment of, 274 retires from Convention, 312
O’Brien, Smith, arrested, 299 trial, 332
O’Connell, Daniel, ally of Whigs, 4 relation to Democrats, 5 people’s Charter, 6 opposes petition, 142 and Lowery, 159 apostacy of, 164
O’Connor, Feargus, sketch of, 13 his popularity, 14, 17 starts “Northern Star”, 16 speech at Newcastle, 26 at Birmingham, 44, 84 description of, 45 at Westminster, 50 at Manchester, 60 at Liverpool, 81 at Brighton, 82 and moral force, 83 on Stephen’s arrest, 101 on relation, 113 at Convention, 123 trial at Manchester, 152 proposes new organisation, 160 trial at Sheffield, 175 denounces O’Connell, 176 controversy with O’Brien, 192 at Bath, 207 discussion on his policy, 209 arrested, 228 trial at Lancaster, 231 address to jury, 238 at Birmingham Conference, 243 his treatment of rival leaders, 246 scheme of organisation, 247 his duplicity, 248 Land Scheme, 249, 261, 268, 269, 288 and the Executive, 250 tour of, 251 his exaggeration, 252 debates with Cobden, 254 supports Sturge, 256 dispute with M’Douall, 258 his Land Scheme opposed, 261 Newport riots, 265 approves Corn Law proposals, 270 O’Connorville, 283 returned for Nottingham, 285 press attacks on, 287 defends his Land Plan, 288 his financial position, 289 at Preston, 297 speech to Convention, 305 and the police, 315 presents petition, 316 challenges Cripps, 318 at Manchesterm 322 decline of his power, 331 controversy with Harney, 344 motion by, defeated, 348 collision with Executive, 357 mental condition, 373 and L.Kossuth, 377 removal to lunatic asylum, 390 death of, 401
O’Donohue, sentenced to death, 342
O’Higgins, Daniel, 158
O’Malley, Rev. Thaddeus, 322
O’Neil, Arthur, arrested, 230
Osborne, elected to Convention, 68
Oswald, M.P., opposes Petition, 142
Otley, Richard, trial of, 237
Owen, Robert, his policy, 75 stands for parliament, 284

Paine, Thomas, 38
Palmerston, Lord, his foreign policy, 189
Parkes, Samuel, trial of, 237
Parry, resolution by, 245
Patridge, of Newport, arrested, 163
Pattison, Mr Justice, 157
Peddie, Robert, trial of, 176, 177
Peel, Sir Robert, 4, 5 Corn Law proposals, 270
Penthorpe, Thomas, committed, 173 tried, 175
Philp, R.K., 205, 209, 213
Pierce, 244
Pilling, Richard, trial of, 237
Pitkeithly, Laurence, 64
Plant, B., trial of, 337
Platt, Baron, 340
Pollock, Sir F., Counsel for Chartists, 165, 170, 232
Potts, William, 79 trial of, 152, 180
Powell, informer, 339
Power, E., trial of, 343
Powls, T., trial of, 175

Quinn, J., arrested, 333 tried, 337

Radcliffe, S., trial of, 333
Radcliffe, T., trial of 158
Railton, Thomas, trial of, 235
Ramsden, J., trial of, 337
Rankin, T., trial of, 337
Rawsthorne, T., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Reece, John, trial of 165 sentenced to death, 169
Reynard, arrested, 172
Reynolds, G.W.M., 298, 308 his newspaper, 354 retires, 377
Richards, John, elected to Convention, 67 trial of, 240
Richardson, J., trial of, 338
Richardson, R.J., 52 speech at Glasgow, 119 arrested, 152 trial of, 178
Riddelholgh, J., trial of, 343
Riley, Edward, trial of, 158
Ritchie, William, tried, 338 transported, 340
Roberts, David, arrested, 151 tried, 152
Roberts, Francis, sentenced to death, 152
Roberts, W.P., 79 trial of, 180
Robespierre, 73, 74
Robins, John, 117
Roebuck, J.A., 5, 6 defends Chartists, 152
Rolfe, Baron, trials before, 232 impartial conduct of, 239
Ross, David, 269, 278
Russell, Lord John, “finality” declaration, 4 opposes Democratic amendment to address, 5 speech by, 92 deprives Frost of his J.P. commission, 106 opposes petition, 140, 138
Ryder, William, 64 resigns, 113
Rymill, John, 346
Sagar, W, arrested, 333 tried, 337
Savage, trial of, 180
Scadding, E., trial of, 338
Scholefield, Rev. James, trial of, 235
Scott, Samuel, trial of, 179
Scott, Sir Walter, 72
Shackleton, H., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Sharpe, Alexander, 349
Shaw, John, arrested, 336
Shell, George, death of, 163
Shepherd, J., trial of, 338
Shirron, James, 304
Skelton, John, 299
Skevington, J., 68
Slater, R., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Small, H., trial of, 338
Smart, elected to Convention, 68
Smith, G.H., elected to Convention, 68 arrested, 152 tried, 178
Smith, J., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Smith, W., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Smithies, trial of, 178
Smyth, James, trial of, 343
Snowball, J., trial of, 338
Solly, Rev.H., 244
Somerville, Alexander, 287
Spencer, Rev.T., 243
Spurr, arrested, 172
Steele, Tom, 46
Stephens, Rev., Joseph Rayner, 55 dismissed from Wesleyan Ministry, 56 speeches, 57, 59, 92, 96 arrest, 98 committed, 100 fund for defence, 101 recants, 157 sentenced, 157 401
Stephenson, James and William, trial of, 235
Stevenson, Matthew, 302
Storah, Thomas, trial of, 237
Stott, W., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Stratton, A., trial of, 343
Stubbs, trial of, 180
Sturge, Joseph, 203, 241, 255
Summers, 243

Talfourd, Serjeant, 178
Tankey, W. Villiers, elected to Edinburgh Convention, 70
Taylor, Frederick, 220
Taylor, William Dean, 211
Taylor, J., arrested at Bingley, 333 tried, 337
Taylor, Dr. John, elected to first Convention, 28 speech at Glasgow, 121 arrested, 132 prison treatment of, 133 death of, 181
Thomason, William, arrested, 149 tried, 174
Thompson, Colonel, 5, 7 speech by, 49
Thompson, George, dinner to, 285
Thompson, Messrs, of Birmingham, indicted, 158
Tillman, William, arrested, 152, 184
Tomkins, J.R., trial of, 343
Tomlinson, A., sentenced, 337
Townshend, sentenced, 152
Turner, George, trial of, 165
Tyndal, Sir Nicholas, trials before, 165

Urquhart, David, attacks Lord Palmerston, 189

Vale, Rev. Dr., house attacked, 227
Vernon, W.J., 299 sentenced, 335
Vicary, F., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Villiers, M.P., supports Petition, 142
Vincent, Henry, 10 character of, 11 at Northampton, 37 elected to Convention, 53 popularity of, 78 on physical force, 79 arrested, 109 sentenced, 152 again tried, 178 his oratory, 206 on Corn Laws, 206

Wade, Rev. Dr., at Glasgow, 21 elected to Convention, 68
Wakley. Thomas, 5, 6 supports Petition, 142 returned for Finsbury, 284
Wallace, M.P., 142
Ward, Sir Henry, 5, 6
Warden, elected to Convention, 65
Waters, Charles, arrested, 163 sentenced to death, 169
Watkins, J., opposes O’Connor, 261
Weaver, trial of, 180
Webber, G., arrested, 337
Wells, William, committed, 173 tried, 175
West, John, arrested, 230. 338
Wheeler, T.M., at Manchester, 62 250, 254 impeachment of, 275 280 motion by, 311
Whone, F., arrested, 333 tried, 337
White, George, arrested, 153 his character, 154 trial, 181 released, 188 second trial, 230 at Birmingham, 245 liberated, 252 again arrested, 337
Whitecombe, H., arrested, 333 trial, 337
Whittaker, T., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Whittle, elected to Convention, 68
Wilkins, arrested, 172
Wilkinson, T., trial of, 343
Williams, David, arrested, 172
Williams, James, his character, 31 speech at Sunderland, 33 arrested, 148 trial, 181
Williams, Joseph, trial, 169 conditional pardon, 256 death, 349
Williams, William, defeated at Coventry, 284
Williams, Zepheniah, arrested, 163 trial, 168
Willman, T., trial of, 343
Willoughby, trial of, 179
Wilson of Leeds, arrested, 153 181
Winterbottom, W., 333 tried, 337
Wolfenden, Albert, trial of, 238
Wood, J., arrested, 333 tried, 337
Wood, W., trial of, 343
Wright, John, arrested, 151
Wright, Joseph, 37

Yates, Jeremiah, trial of, 240
Young, C., trial of, 180 again arrested, 338


Robert Gammage - History

Robert Alton Gammage, 1938-2012, born in Houston, served Texas in a variety of elective offices, such as Texas State Representative, Texas Senator, United States Representative, Texas Court of Appeals Justice (Austin), and Texas Supreme Court Justice. After serving in the military from 1969 to 1979, Gammage practiced law privately in Houston. He began his political career in 1970 when he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives. In 1972, Gammage became a Texas Senator and attended the Texas Constitutional Convention, before running for the U. S. House in 1976. A Democrat, he was associated with environmental, health care, and election reform issues. In the House, he was concerned with energy issues, and later worked as a special consultant for the United States Department of Energy. After leaving Congress, Gammage served as an Assistant Attorney General of Texas and a consultant to the U. S. Department of Energy.

In 1982, Gammage was elected to the Texas Court of Appeals, and in 1990 won a statewide election to the Texas Supreme Court. As a judge, Gammage developed a reputation as a defender of civil liberties. Gammage retired in 1995 to practice law privately and teach. He taught at Sam Houston State, Texas State, South Texas College of Law, University of Corpus Christi, and Texas A&M Corpus Christi. Gammage passed away in September 2012 at the age of 74.

Source: “Gammage, Robert Alton.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed March 6, 2012. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=d000036.

Scope and Contents

Printed material, notes, correspondence, photographs, and audio materials comprise the Robert A. Gammage Papers, 1971-1995, which document Robert Gammage’s career as a politician, lawyer, and judge. The papers include extensive legislative research and case files, which document Bob Gammage’s terms in the Texas House of Representatives (1971-1973) and Senate (1973-1976) the United States House (1977-1979) the Texas Court of Appeals (1982-1990) and the Texas Supreme Court (1990-1995). The concerns of Gammage’s Houston constituency are evident in their letters and Gammage’s work on energy issues. The Texas Supreme Court records within Gamage’s papers are arranged according to a numerical system created by Gammage’s office.

Arrangement

Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Case, project, and office files are restricted until 2053 contact repository for information.

Index Terms

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Robert A. Gammage Papers, 1971-1995, Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin

Processing Information

This collection was processed by archives staff.

Alternate Form Available

Portions of the U. S. House of Representatives files are available on microfilm. See Miscellaneous Uncataloged Microfilm at the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, reels 838.29-838.43.


History

Gammage & Burnham began more than three decades ago with a toast between colleagues at a Washington, D.C.-area bar. Despite the unlikely pairing and the unlikely setting, the entrepreneurial spirit that saw the advantage in building a law firm anchored by healthcare, real estate and creditor’s rights has proven itself over the years as a robust legal cocktail. And that same spirit drives the firm today.

Since forming in 1983, Gammage & Burnham has expanded its client base and practice areas to include agriculture, zoning and land use, healthcare, creditor’s rights, commercial finance, corporate transactions, construction law and commercial litigation. The firm’s diversity of expertise is powered by the talents of nearly forty attorneys who come with credentials that are difficult to match. Beyond longevity, Gammage & Burnham has earned an uncommon loyalty from its seasoned attorneys and its clients, many of which have worked with the firm since its inception.

The ideals that led to that toast inside Clyde’s bar all those years ago still ring true today. Led by the knowledge and expertise of its top tier attorneys, Gammage & Burnham remains dedicated to offering its clients, whether they’re local start-ups or international corporations, exceptional service at competitive rates. The firm’s deep Arizona roots grow stronger with each passing year, and its business-minded philosophy remains tethered to the substance of that toast in that bar.


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