Governors of Washington

Governors of Washington

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Under Territorial Government:


Isaac Ingalls Stevens


3/1854 - 12/1854
5/1855 - 1/19/1856
8/1857 - 9/1857

Charles H. Mason (Acting)



Fayette McMullen


8/1858 - 7/1859

Charles H. Mason (Acting)


1859 - 1861

Richard D. Gholson


1860 - 1861

Henry M. McGill (Acting)


William Henson Wallace


1861 - 1862

L. Jay S. Turney (Acting)

1862 - 1866

William Pickering


1866 - 1867

George E. Cole


1867 - 1869

Marshall F. Moore


1869 - 1870

Alvan Flanders


1870 - 1872

Edward Selig Salomon


1872 - 1880

Elisha Peyre Ferry


1880 - 1884

William Augustus Newell


1884 - 1887

Watson Carvosso Squire


1887 - 1889

Eugene Semple



Miles Conway Moore


Under State Government:

1889 - 1893

Elisha Peyre Ferry


1893 - 1897

John Harte McGraw


1897 - 1901

John Rankin Rogers

Populist / Democrat

1901 - 1905

Henry McBride


1905 - 1909

Albert Edward Mead



Samuel Goodlove Cosgrove


1909 - 1913

Marion E. Hay


1913 - 1919

Ernest Lister


1919 - 1925

Louis Folwell Hart


1925 - 1933

Roland Hill Hartley


1933 - 1941

Clarence Daniel Martin


1941 - 1945

Arthur Bernard Langlie


1945 - 1949

Monrad Charles Wallgren


1949 - 1957

Arthur Bernard Langlie


1957 - 1965

Albert Dean Rosellini


1965 - 1977

Daniel Jackson Evans


1977 - 1981

Dixy Lee Ray


1981 - 1985

John Dennis Spellman


1985 - 1993

Booth Gardner


1993 - 1997

Michael Edward Lowry


1997 -

Gary Locke


The Story of WGU

As the most student-centric university in the world, the story of WGU is centered on our students. We are directly invested in their struggles, their lives, and their successes.

Too many people have felt that education was out of their reach. Distance, cost, and life situations led them to believe that education was unattainable. From our inception we have taken these barriers to education head-on so our students have access to the surest way to change their lives for the better—a degree.

Although our university has grown and our focus has widened, our single commitment to our students has not. Our ambition to help individuals bridge the gap from talent to opportunity will never rest.

The governor's mansion of the state of Washington was built in 1908 on 12 acres donated by Edmund Sylvester (1821-1887) and accepted by the Territorial Legislature as the site for a state capitol in 1855. The mansion was designed in Georgian style by architects Russell & Babcock of Tacoma, built under the supervision of Seattle's Matthew Dow Construction, and decorated by Weissenborn & Company, also of Seattle. Washington firms performed all the work, operating on a short budget of $35,000 and a short time frame of five months. The 19-room mansion was accepted by the State Building Commission on December 18, 1908, was first occupied by Governor Marion E. Hay (1865-1933) and his family in 1909, and has been home to every Washington governor since. Over the years little maintenance work was done, and during the 1950s and early 1960s the State considered proposals to tear down the mansion. During the 1965-1977 terms of Governor Daniel J. Evans (b. 1925), he and First Lady Nancy Bell Evans (b. 1933) prevailed in their efforts to secure funding for restoration of the mansion and to develop a private, non-profit organization to fund and care for the furnishings and decorations of the public rooms. Architect Ibsen A. Nelsen (1919- 2001) designed the restoration, adding seven new rooms. Interior designer Jean Jongeward (1917-2000) designed the interior, working closely with Nancy Evans and a statewide team of volunteers. The restored mansion was reopened in September 1975, as a permanent home for Washington's governors and their families. It is located next door to the Washington State Legislative Building on the now-expanded Capitol Campus, many of its rooms are open to the public, and tours are conducted by the Governor's Mansion Foundation. The Capitol Campus and its buildings were added to both the National Register of Historic Places and the State of Washington Heritage Register in 1979.

A Governor's Rented Quarters

As 1908 began in Olympia, Governor Albert Edward Mead (1861-1913) was entering his third year as Washington's fifth state governor. He and his wife, Mina Jane Hosmer Pifer Mead (ca. 1861-1941) were raising five children in a rented house in Olympia, complete with a garden, pets, a cow, and chickens. The state expected its governors to bring their families to Olympia and to reside there throughout the governor's term of office. (This was not true of all states. By 1900, only 19 states provided residences for their governors Washington was one of nine additional states to do so during the period 1900-1920.)

The Washington Legislature did not provide much in the way of rental assistance for its governors. Governor's Mead's salary came to $333.33 per month, and this had to cover all his bills, including rent. With the state's first world's fair, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, due to open in June 1909 in Seattle, the governor and the Legislature agreed that Washington needed an official governor's residence, both to house its first families and to provide an appropriate setting to carry out the hospitality expected of the state's chief executive.

But the Legislature was parsimonious. Senate Bill 76, introduced by Thurston County State Senator Alfred S. Ruth (1865-1915), chairman of the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds and the Special Committee on the Capitol Building and Grounds, became the act providing for the purchase of the site, construction, and furnishing of a governor's residence. Governor Mead signed it on February 28, 1907. The Legislature allocated $35,000 for the project and assigned a State Building Commission to oversee it. The act also designated the "old capitol site" as the location, assuming resolution of then-pending litigation, and required that the building be completed by June 1, 1909. The allocation was guaranteed by income from "capitol lands," federal lands gifted to the state to provide income to finance state capitol buildings, awarded by President Harrison when he signed the legislation that created the State of Washington on November 11, 1889.

A Mansion Fit for Governors

It took every allocated penny to build the house and decorate it. The Georgian design featured an entrance in the middle of the north-facing façade, two small rooms on each side of an entry vestibule, two large rooms on each side of a large entry hall, and a grand staircase ascending to the second floor, with the kitchen, service facilities, and stairs to the basement in the rear. The exterior was finished in red brick, trimmed in white Alaskan marble and sandstone copings. A full cement basement provided space for the usual heating, plumbing, and laundry facilities, and also had "a commodious vault for storing plate and other valuables belonging to the mansion," a wine cellar, and vegetable storage (The Pacific Builder and Engineer).

The first floor included a ballroom with musicians' gallery and a state dining room on the east, a living room with a fireplace and French doors leading to a covered porch on the west, and a breakfast room beyond. The governor's study opened to the left of the vestibule as one entered, and a reception room to the right. One could also continue through the vestibule to the great hall, with doors to the ballroom or the living room and stairs leading to the second floor, which had eight rooms, with three bathrooms and an abundance of closets. A lift was installed from the basement to the second floor. The design created a tendency for formal occasions to be housed to the east and family activities to the west (the governor's suite was on the west side of the second floor), but there was little separation between family and public spaces.

Made In Washington

The general contractor was Matthew Dow Construction Company of Seattle. The bricks came from the Abrahamson yards in Seattle, and the lime from San Juan County. The marble trim was furnished by the Tacoma yards of the Western Marble Company, the sandstone by Hercules quarries in Tenino, the cement by the Skagit County plant of Washington Portland Cement Co., and the cedar shingles by the Olympia Door Company. Weissenborn & Company of Seattle designed and coordinated the interior decorating and Cascade Gas & Electric Fixture Co. of Seattle designed and manufactured the colonial style lighting fixtures. Heating, a hot-water system of about 40 radiators, was installed by Tacoma Plumbing & Heating Co. An article in The Pacific Builder and Engineer stated:

"It is the general impression that the state of Washington has received full value for any money spent in connection with the mansion, and that first-class materials and work are there to show for it. The various bids were low and it is definitely known that a good portion of the remuneration has been in the shape of a reputation gained through the advertising naturally connected with a public building of this character" (The Pacific Builder and Engineer).

Laying the Cornerstone

The cornerstone for the building was installed with great ceremony on August 1, 1908. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer reported that "The event was treated as a half holiday in Olympia … " (August 3, 1908, p. 3). The ceremony was conducted by the Masonic Grand Lodge of the state of Washington, with Most Worshipful Grand Master Royal A. Gove (1856-1951) presiding. Governor Mead, in his cornerstone-ceremony address, put the Washington Governor's Mansion project in context:

"The elegant modern building which is being reared upon this foundation to house the future governors of the state in a style befitting the dignity of the position occupied by the chief official of our wonderful young commonwealth typifies the transition from the primeval conditions that were here 55 years ago when the first Territorial Governor made his precarious way across the continent to the advantages of the great material advancement that has taken place" (Notes, Box 1 (1966-1972), Accession No. 99-A-155, Washington State Archives, Olympia).

Governor Mead lost the primary in 1908, so he and his wife never lived in the mansion.

Finished but Not Furnished

Construction was completed by the end of 1908, but the mansion remained unfurnished. The new governor was due to be inaugurated on January 27, 1909, and housewarming festivities were planned. The women of Olympia were asked to help, and they loaned furniture and glassware and hosted the festivities. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer reported the event on January 29, 1909:

"From 8:30 until midnight the house was thronged with a happy crowd. Handsome and expensive gowns were the rule rather than the exception. The residence came in for general praise from the visitors, the reception hall and state dining room receiving particularly favorable comment . . During the evening an orchestra discoursed music and a number of vocal selections were rendered by home talent and some of the visitors . .

Tonight's reception was to the legislature and state officers. Tomorrow a reception will be given to the people of Olympia … (p. 3).

The governor-elect, Samuel G. Cosgrove (1841-1909), was taken ill shortly after the election and had been trying to recuperate in California. He appeared in Olympia on January 27 for inauguration day, was inaugurated, but then took a leave of absence. He died on March 28, 1909, leaving Lieutenant Governor Marion E. Hay to succeed him.

Lizzie Hay's Fine House

The first occupants of the governor's mansion were Governor Marion E. Hay, Lizzie Livingston Muir Hay (1865-1943), and their five children. In 1909, the State Legislature appropriated a total of $21,000 to be spent on the mansion during the biennium: $2,000 per year for maintenance, $15,000 for furnishings, and $2,000 for improving the grounds.

In May 1909, Frederick & Nelson of Seattle received the contract for furnishings, and Lizzie Hay selected the pieces. By December 1909, most of the furnishings were in place and the bill was paid. Some of these pieces remain in the mansion to this day, including a large grandfather clock.

Russell & Babcock, Architects

Russell & Babcock were experienced and well-regarded Washington architects when they were selected by the State Building Commission on April 9, 1908, to design the governor's mansion. Ambrose J. Russell, a British subject born in India, had attended the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and had worked briefly in Kansas City, Missouri, before moving to Tacoma during the 1890s and becoming a United States citizen. He entered into a number of short-lived partnerships in Tacoma before forming an association with Everett Phipps Babcock in about 1905. Babcock first appeared in Tacoma as an assistant superintending architect for the city during the construction of the downtown Carnegie Public Library.

Russell & Babcock designed a significant number of commercial, religious, and residential projects in Tacoma, including five of Tacoma's designated landmark buildings built from about 1902-1918. Among their Tacoma buildings are the Armory, Frederick H. Murray house, Pantages Theatre/Jones Building, Perkins Building, and Rutland and Woodstock Apartments.

Ambrose J. Russell, independently, designed four more buildings built from 1905-1927, including the 1905 William Ross Rust house, a Georgian mansion similar in style to the governor's mansion. Russell partnered with others on two additional Tacoma landmark structures, and the firm of Fay, Russell, and Babcock was responsible for the Masons Building at the A-Y-P Exposition in 1909. (Ulysses Grant Fay Grant practiced in Seattle from 1909 to 1917.)

To Raze or Restore?

The governor's mansion was the first built of the cluster of buildings we know today as the Washington State Capitol. Over the years repairs to the mansion were a low priority. Time took its toll, and the earthquake of 1949 damaged the structure. By the 1950s, legislators began considering tearing the old place down. Some wished to locate a new office building on the site.

But during the 1950s, a major rehabilitation of the White House in Washington, D.C., was undertaken, and in 1961, new First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy (1929-1994) continued this work, selecting furnishings from the time of the original building (1800) to complete the restoration.

When Daniel J. Evans, his wife Nancy Bell Evans, and their two children moved into the governor's mansion in 1965, its condition was deteriorating. The controversy over whether to tear it down had delayed long-needed repairs. Nevertheless, members of the public regularly stopped by, wishing to visit. In July 1966, architect Ibsen A. Nelsen of Nelsen, Sabin & Varey presented a report to the Capitol Committee on the condition of the mansion, and was directed to proceed with detailed plans for renovations.

The Capitol Committee included Governor Evans, Lieutenant Governor John A. Cherberg (1910-1992), and Land Commissioner Bert L. Cole (1910-1993). In September 1966, the State signed an architectural agreement with Nelsen, Sabin and Varey, and in July 1967, bids were circulated for the work.

However, the bids came in much higher than expected and the committee decided to revisit the option of building a new governor's residence. In December 1967, the Capitol Committee agreed to make immediate repairs to the governor's mansion up to a cost of $30,000, but not to proceed with the renovation.

Nancy Evans and CRISP

Nancy Evans began researching how to decorate and furnish the mansion, and she worked to develop a private organization that would foster the public's access to the building and appreciation of it. In April 1969, a small group of Washingtonians formed a non-profit corporation called Citizens Responsive to the Need for Improving State Properties (CRISP). Further progress came on May 30, 1972, when Nancy Evans convened a gathering at the mansion to address the need to refurnish and redecorate the residence.

CRISP evolved into the Foundation for the Preservation of the Governor's Mansion, with Laurene Gandy of Seattle serving as chair. At its first annual meeting, CRISP adopted Jean Jongeward's plan as the guideline for rehabilitating the interior of the mansion. Approximately five years in development, Jongeward's design was responsive to the overall restoration plans of Nelsen, Sabin and Varey. As Jacqueline Kennedy had redecorated the White House to celebrate the early years of the nation, so Jongeward called for furnishings and decorations that reflected the early years of Washington state.

In April 1973, the Legislature passed House Bill 704, "State Buildings and Facilities Construction," which authorized general obligation bonds of $27 million. The State Capitol Commission retained policy-making authority, while administrative responsibility was given to the General Services Administration.

Through this legislation, funding became available. Renovation could at last begin on the Washington's governor's mansion, a building that would also serve as a historical resource for the public.


Reconstruction began in May 1974, but the initial $600,000 allocated by the Legislature quickly proved insufficient when builders discovered serious deficits in the structure that expanded the scope of the project. But work progressed and the rehabilitation, true to Ibsen Nelsen's design, was completed in 1975. A new addition to the rear of the building made a more comfortable division between family and public spaces. Most of the original first-floor rooms were restored.

Meanwhile, the foundation's work was underway. During "Mansion Month" in October 1974, it raised money from around the state to help furnish and decorate the mansion. The outfitting of the public rooms, based on Jongeward's plan, was sufficiently advanced that the women of Olympia did not feel obliged to loan furnishings for the mansion's re-opening in September 1975.

Jean Jongeward: Queen of Design

Jean Jongeward came to Seattle from Minnesota as an Army wife during World War II and stayed. She first worked at Frederick & Nelson's in Seattle, helping people coordinate furniture, carpets, and fabrics. Later she owned her own business in Pioneer Square. Her reputation grew and she eventually became known locally and nationally as "Seattle's queen of design" (Beers).

Jongeward worked with Nancy Evans and Ibsen Nelsen for a number of years to design the plan for the interior of the governor's mansion. She volunteered time and effort to the foundation, helping to guide commissions and acceptance of donations. She designed many of the wall and floor coverings now in use. According to design writer Lindsey Rowe, Jongeward's color and materials palate was inspired by stone, pewter, steel, driftwood, and oyster shells.

Ibsen Nelsen

Seattle architect Ibsen Nelsen was active in the Seattle movement to preserve and renovate older buildings during the 1960s and 1970s. From 1975 to 1982, he was deeply involved in the rehabilitation of the Inn at the Market and the Stewart House in the Pike Place Market. He is also known for the design of the Museum of Flight (1975-1987) and Merrill Court Townhouses (1981-86) in Seattle's Harvard-Belmont historic district.

The AIA honored him with its Seattle Medal in 1989, noting that Nelsen "practiced and professed a reverence for the qualities of the Northwest's natural and social landscape. His architecture, his thoughtful expressions of his knowledge and beliefs, and his lifelong civic activism profoundly affected both the architects and the architecture of the Northwest" (AIA Seattle website) .

Our Historic Governor's Mansion

By 1991, 44 of the 50 states had provided governor's mansions. Eighteen states had organized foundations or similar nonprofit groups to support furnishing and decorating these residences (Washington was among the earliest). Since the 1950s, only nine states have built or rebuilt new governors' residences.

In the centennial year (2008-2009) of the Washington governor's mansion, a host of special activities are being held by the foundation, including free tours conducted by a dedicated group of remarkably knowledgeable volunteer docents. The governor's mansion displays furnishings and art objects collected by the foundation, the State's collection of silver objects, and art borrowed from around the state. Lizzie Hay's large grandfather clock adorns the main landing. Today, an endowment is being established to preserve the furnishings for the use and enjoyment of future generations.

The State of Washington
Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation

Governor's mansion (Russell and Babcock, 1908), Olympia, 1909

Courtesy UW Special Collections (UW437)

Governor's mansion (Russell and Babcock, 1908), Olympia, 1909

Photo by Asahel Curtis, Courtesy UW Special Collections (Neg. No. A. Curtis 14644)

Governor's Mansion, Olympia, 1930s

Architects Ibsen Nelsen (left) and Fred Bassetti, August 1984

Detail from a photo by Mary Randlett, copyright © 1984

Nancy Evans, 2004

Photo by Karen Orders Photography, Courtesy Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs


Governors of the Territory of Washington

Washington Territory was created on March 2, 1853 from the northern half of Oregon Territory. At this point, Washington Territory also included the northern panhandle of modern Idaho and parts of Montana. [7] The southern half of Idaho was assigned to the Washington Territory in 1859 after Oregon was admitted as a state. [8] Idaho Territory was split from Washington Territory in 1863 giving Washington Territory its final borders. [9]

Due to the long distance between Washington, D.C. and Olympia, there was often a lengthy gap between a governor being appointed and his arrival in the territory.

Picture Governor Took office [lower-alpha 1] Left office Appointed by Notes
Isaac Stevens December 3, 1853 [10] August 11, 1857 [11] Franklin Pierce
LaFayette McMullen September 10, 1857 [12] July 1858 [13] James Buchanan
Richard D. Gholson July 15, 1859 [14] February 14, 1861 [15] James Buchanan [lower-alpha 2]
William H. Wallace Appointed April 9, 1861 [17] Abraham Lincoln [lower-alpha 3]
William Pickering June 1862 [19] January 8, 1867 [20] Abraham Lincoln [lower-alpha 4]
George E. Cole January 8, 1867 [20] March 4, 1867 [20] Andrew Johnson [lower-alpha 4]
Marshall F. Moore August 26, 1867 [21] 1869 Andrew Johnson
Alvan Flanders April 5, 1869 [22] March 14, 1870 [23] Ulysses S. Grant
Edward Selig Salomon Appointed March 4, 1870 [24] April 1872 [24] Ulysses S. Grant
Elisha Peyre Ferry Appointed April 26, 1872 [25] November 1, 1880 [26] Ulysses S. Grant [lower-alpha 5]
William Augustus Newell November 1, 1880 [26] 1884 Rutherford B. Hayes
Watson Carvasso Squire Appointed July 2, 1884 [25] April 1887 [28] Chester A. Arthur [lower-alpha 5]
Eugene Semple Appointed April 9, 1887 [29] 1889 Grover Cleveland [lower-alpha 5]
Miles Conway Moore April 9, 1889 [30] November 11, 1889 Benjamin Harrison

Governors of the State of Washington

Washington was admitted to the Union on November 11, 1889. The term for governor is four years, [2] commencing on the second Monday in the January following the election. [31] If the office of governor is vacant or the governor is unable to discharge their duties, the lieutenant governor assumes the office of governor. If both the offices of governor and lieutenant governor are unable to fulfill their duties, the secretary of state is next in line, and then the treasurer. [32] There is no limit to the number of terms a governor may serve. [33] The office of lieutenant governor is not elected on the same ticket as the governor.


The governor is responsible for ensuring that the laws of the state are faithfully executed (§ 5) and is responsible for the safety of the state, as he or she serves as commander-in-chief of the Washington Militia (§ 8).

Additionally, the governor has the power to appoint heads of departments, agencies, and institutions. The governor is also responsible for presenting the state budget.

Other duties and privileges of the office include:

  • Requiring written information from any state officer any aspect of her duties and office (§ 5)
  • Addressing each session of the legislature on the state of state and making recommendations (§ 6)
  • Convening extraordinary sessions of the General Assembly (§ 7)
  • Granting pardons (§ 9)
  • Remitting fines and forfeitures (§ 11)
  • Vetoing bills, subject to a two-thirds legislative override (§ 12)
  • Filling vacancies in all offices not otherwise provided for, including making recess appointments (§ 13) Γ]

Pardon Me?: The History of the Washington Territorial Government and the Self-Pardon

Michael Schein is the author (among other books) of Bones Beneath Our Feet: A Historical Novel of Puget Sound (Bennett & Hastings 2011) that includes a dramatization of these events. He is an attorney and a former Professor of American Legal History.

Isaac Stevens served as the Territorial Governor of Washington from 1853 to 1857

Our disgraced President, knowing that his days in office are numbered and that he has committed serious crimes, has floated the idea of pardoning himself. Reports in the media suggest that no president has ever done this, and no court has ruled on it. The first is accurate. The second is not.

The story begins March 11, 1856, in Washington Territory. Prior to statehood, Washington Territory was run like a personal fiefdom by Governor Isaac I. Stevens, a gruff man described by biographer Kent Richards as a &ldquodiminutive Napoleon,&rdquo whose uncompromising treaty terms had stirred up an Indian War. After their land was stolen by the Medicine Creek Treaty of Christmas day, 1854, combined Native forces under the leadership of Chief Leschi of the Nisquallies frequently clashed with soldiers of the Washington Territorial Volunteers, Stevens&rsquo private and poorly-disciplined army. Leschi&rsquos people proved themselves impossible to capture all through the winter of 1855-56, frustrating Governor Stevens and leading to popular discontent with the war.

What Stevens needed was a scapegoat. He found it in the so-called &ldquoMuck Creek traitors&rdquo &ndash British and French former Hudson&rsquos Bay Company employees who had settled on the outskirts of &ldquocivilized&rdquo (i.e., pacified) areas, often intermarried with Native women. Stevens declared without evidence that the only way Leschi&rsquos people could have survived the winter was because these &ldquohalf-breed traitors&rdquo had been passing food and arms to them &ndash ignoring the fact that Leschi&rsquos people had survived the Pacific Northwest winter in their upland villages since time immemorial. He ordered his Territorial Volunteers to arrest the traitors. Seven men &ndash Sandy Smith, John McLeod, Charles Wren, Henry Smith, John McField, Henry Murray and Peter Wilson &ndash were seized by his soldiers, as Richards described.

The problem for Stevens was that Washington Territory was subject to Federal law enforced by Federal judges. Frank Clark and William Wallace, two lawyers who knew a violation of civil liberty when they saw one, traveled to Whidbey&rsquos Island to the home of Federal Judge Francis Chenoweth and obtained from him a writ of habeas corpus. This is one of the most ancient writs in British and American law, by which the Court commands that anyone holding a prisoner must &ldquoproduce the body&rdquo in court to answer to the legality of the imprisonment.

Stevens knew that he didn&rsquot have evidence of wrongdoing that would stand up in court. He countered the Court&rsquos writ on April 3, 1856, by declaring martial law in Pierce County under the pretext of an active state of war. This declaration suspended habeas corpus, foreshadowing Lincoln&rsquos actions during the Civil War, which were found by the US Supreme Court to be unconstitutional. (Ex Parte Milligan, 71 US 2 (1866)).

On May 7, 1856, Chief Federal Judge Edward Lander convened court in Steilacoom, Washington Territory, to hear arguments on the writ of habeas corpus. Expecting trouble, the Pierce County Sheriff gathered a posse of armed citizens to protect the court. In historian Ezra Meeker&rsquos accounting, Stevens told Major Benjamin F. Shaw, an officer in his Territorial Volunteers, that &ldquomartial law must be enforced.&rdquo Shaw&rsquos men outnumbered and outgunned the posse, who were forced to back down in order to avoid bloodshed. Shaw announced that by the authority of the Governor he was shutting down the court, and arresting Judge Lander and the court clerk for disobedience to the Governor&rsquos declaration of martial law.

At this point Stevens had a hot potato in hand &ndash an actual Federal Judge, arrested by Governor&rsquos executive order while attempting to do his duty to enforce the United States Constitution! Stevens cut a deal with the judge, extracting a promise that he would not open court in violation of martial law if Stevens let him go. The wily Judge Lander agreed. But on May 12, 1856, Judge Lander opened another session of court in Olympia, Washington Territory &ndash which was located in Thurston County, not Pierce County, and was therefore not under martial law. After hearing arguments, on the next day he granted the writ of habeas corpus.

Governor Stevens responded by extending his declaration of martial law to Thurston County and directing his volunteers to refuse to comply with the writ. On May 14, Judge Lander issued an order summoning Governor Stevens himself into court to explain the defiance of the Court&rsquos prior orders. This infuriated the Governor, who ordered Judge Lander&rsquos arrest once again. The Territorial Volunteers literally smashed in the door to the courthouse, and Judge Lander was seized and held.

The question now for the lawyers opposing Stevens was, as Richards wrote, &ldquosimply whether a public servant shall be allowed to over-ride all law, even the highest to usurp, at his sole and egotistical discretion, absolute power over life and liberty &hellip.&rdquo Judge Chenoweth rushed down from Whidbey&rsquos Island to Steilacoom where, on May 24, 1856, he opened one of the most dangerous court hearings in American history. Outside the building, an armed civilian posse defending the power of the court faced down armed Territorial Volunteers under the command of Lieutenant Samuel Curtis, who had orders from the Governor to enforce martial law. At the last minute, US Army Colonel Silas B. Casey intervened and persuaded Curtis to stand down.

Colonel Casey&rsquos eleventh-hour heroics avoided a bloody confrontation that could even have resulted in the murder of a Federal Judge. Freshly inked writs of habeas corpus for release of the so-called traitors and for release of Judge Lander were then served on Major Shaw, who refused to comply. Judge Chenoweth told the volunteers that, while ordinarily they were right to obey their orders, obedience to unlawful orders was itself unlawful &ndash thus presaging the Nuremburg Principle by ninety years.

Intense political pressure forced Stevens to back down. On May 25, he rescinded martial law and released Judge Lander. The case against the so-called &ldquoMuck Creek traitors&rdquo was heard by a military commission and dismissed for lack of evidence. Now the attention of the law turned to Governor Stevens himself.

Chief Judge Lander ordered Governor Stevens into court to answer charges of contempt of court, a series of events Meeker has described. Stevens refused to appear, and he was adjudged in contempt and fined $50.00. On July 10, 1856, Stevens responded as follows:

I, Isaac I. Stevens, Governor of the Territory of Washington, by the authority vested in me as Governor by the President of the United States, and in order that Isaac I. Stevens may continue in the uninterrupted discharge of his Constitutional duties as Chief Executive of the aforesaid Territory, do hereby PARDON the said Isaac I. Stevens, defendant, from any and all judgments and/or executions, and all proceedings for the enforcement and collection of fines and costs, in connection with a certain contempt proceeding in the United States Court for the Third District of Washington.

Governor, Washington Territory

Judge Lander refused to be swayed by this so-called pardon. While we have no record of his exact reasoning, we know that after reviewing it Judge Lander ordered the immediate arrest of the Governor. At that point, friends of the Governor paid the fine, thus avoiding the arrest. But the principle was established: Executive self-pardon was not worth more than the paper on which it was written.

While the pardon language in the Constitution is not specific on the point, there is a fundamental rule in American law that a person cannot serve as a judge in their own case, one cited by Acting Assistant Attorney General Mary C. Lawton in rejecting the idea that President Richard Nixon could pardon himself for crimes committed in the Watergate affair. Breach of this necessary and obvious rule would result in placing the Chief Executive above the rule of law. If the President could execute an enforceable self-pardon, then the President could do literally anything &ndash shoot someone on Fifth Avenue as Trump once speculated, or incite an effort to overthrow the lawful government of the United States, as Trump apparently did on January 6, 2021 &ndash and be immune from all prosecution. The wisdom of Judge Lander is that such a sham pardon cannot be allowed to subvert justice under the rule of law.

Mary C. Lawton, Acting Asst. Attorney General, Memorandum re: Presidential or Legislative Pardon of the President (August 5, 1974) (downloadable from (Lawton).

Kent D. Richards, Isaac I. Stevens: Young Man in a Hurry (1979 Brigham Young Univ. Press) (Richards).

Ezra Meeker, The Tragedy of Leschi (1980 Historical Society of Seattle and King County) (Meeker).

Robert Dinwiddie

This letter, in the Mount Vernon collections, sheds light on George Washington's attitude towards Native Americans during the French and Indian War.

Washington's life

French and Indian War

Explore Mount Vernon's collection of articles related to George Washington's early military experience in the French and Indian War.

Digital Encyclopedia

Ohio River Valley

Washington viewed western lands as important not just for agriculture, but also because they contained valuable mineral resources.

Robert Dinwiddie poured his ambitions into becoming a successful merchant, as well as a colonial administrator and politician for more than 30 years, including six and a half years as Governor of the Royal Colony of Virginia (1751-1758). 1 As Governor, Dinwiddie not only played a pivotal role in pushing against the French in the Ohio Valley and igniting the French and Indian War, but he also launched and shaped George Washington&rsquos early military career. Dinwiddie would also clash with the Virginia House of Burgesses over an issue of taxation that Thomas Jefferson later suggested was a precursor to the battles over the same issue--crown authority over colonial affairs--that started the American Revolution. 2

The future Governor of Virginia was born in 1692 to an old Scottish family. His father was a prosperous merchant. However, the family fortunes declined significantly by the time Dinwiddie graduated from the University of Glasgow in 1710 or 1711. By the time he was thirty, Dinwiddie had become one of the wealthiest men in Bermuda through merchant trading. The enterprising Scot leveraged his success into public office as a local custom official, later overseeing customs operations for several colonies, including Virginia. He married Rebecca Auchinleck who belonged to one of the island&rsquos most prominent families. 3

Robert Dinwiddie took up his post as Virginia&rsquos Royal (lieutenant) Governor in July 1751. Dinwiddie cultivated friendships with many Virginians, particularly the most powerful, and become a partner in the Ohio Company whose board also included George Washington&rsquos two older brothers. Throughout his tenure, Dinwiddie showed an unwavering faith and sense of duty in maintaining Britain&rsquos authority over the colonies and expanding its reach into North America.

Shortly after arriving in Virginia in 1751, Dinwiddie attempted to impose a fee on registering land patents. This proposal turned the House of Burgesses into a hornet&rsquos nest of opposition, and galvanized the ire of land speculators. Dinwiddie sought and received assurance from the Board of Trade 4 that establishing this fee was unquestionably within his power. 5 This did not deter the Burgesses from taking the extraordinary step, at first unbeknownst to Dinwiddie, of sending one of their own and the attorney general Peyton Randolph to London to contest the fee before the Privy Council 6 who came down on Dinwiddie&rsquos side in a muddled fashion and the controversy subsided. In a letter to Lord Halifax, Dinwiddie accused the Virginians of &ldquorepublican thinking&rdquo and compromising the crown&rsquos authority. 7

Robert Dinwiddie sent a constant stream of communications back to London detailing French encroachment in the Ohio Valley and urged remedial action. Virginia and the other colonies soon received orders to protect His Majesty&rsquos possessions in North America. Dinwiddie took quick action by sending a young George Washington, now commissioned as a major, to French authorities with a message requesting them to leave lands claimed by England. The French summarily rejected the request, prompting Dinwiddie to seek a military remedy. He again enlisted George Washington, now commissioned a lieutenant Colonel, to lead a contingent of 160 men out to the Ohio Valley where Washington skirmished with the French, eventually surrendering at Fort Necessity on July 3, 1754. The start of the French and Indian War that became a world war dates to Washington&rsquos actions here.

The British ministry, deeming Americans unfit militarily and wary to unite the colonies in common action, sent General Edward Braddock and some 1,500 regulars to America to dislodge the French. Dinwiddie closely coordinated with Braddock on his expedition, but fell woefully short in the supplies and men he promised. 8 Braddock&rsquos campaign met with disastrous results at the Battle of Monongahela on July 9, 1755 where he lost more than half his force and his own life. Washington, an aide de camp, was celebrated for his superb bravery in assisting the British retreat.

Dinwiddie would not stay in America to see the eventual British victory in the French and Indian War. His health deteriorating, he left Virginia January 12, 1758. He remained active in government circles strongly advocating for continued British sway over the colonies and for the Stamp Act. He would die at the age of 77 on July 27, 1770.

George Washington&rsquos Mount Vernon

1. Dinwiddie&rsquos official title was Lieutenant Governor, but with the English system of absentee governors, he was the chief representative of the crown and was always addressed as Governor.

2. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the state of Virginia (London: Printed for John Stockdale, 1787), 295, transcribed and annotated, Scholars&rsquo Lab at the University of Virginia Library, 2014.

3 . John Richard Alden, Robert Dinwiddie: Servant of the Crown (Williamsburg: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1973), 6-9.

4. The Board of Trade was tasked with ensuring that colonial legislation did not conflict with British trade policies and responsible for nominating governors and other high officials to the royal colonies.

6. The Privy Council was an advisory council for the king.

7. Governor Dinwiddie to The Earl of Halifax, March 12, 1754, in The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Virginia, 1751-1758, Vol. I (Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1883), 100.

8. David Preston, Braddock&rsquos Defeat: The Battle of the Monongahela and the Road to Revolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 71.

Alden, John Richard. Robert Dinwiddie: Servant of the Crown. Williamsburg: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1973.

Heinemann, Ronald L, Kolp, John G, Parent Jr., Anthony S. and Shade, William G., A History of Virginia, 1607-2007. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007.

Allegheny Expedition

In 1753, France and Britain both claimed the vast territory beyond the Allegheny Mountains known as the Ohio River Valley. Alarmed by the aggressive actions of the French, Governor Robert Dinwiddie received Crown approval to demand French withdrawal from the western lands claimed by Virginia. Pending refusal, Dinwiddie also had permission to drive the French out by force of arms.

Twenty-one-year-old Major George Washington, newly appointed adjutant of the colony's southern district, immediately volunteered to be Dinwiddie's emissary to the French. Although he had no prior military service, spoke no French or Native languages, and was inexperienced in matters of diplomacy, Washington did have some factors in his favor. Washington was the half-brother of the late Lawrence Washington, a former adjutant of the militia and half-pay British officer. In addition, Washington was closely aligned with the powerful Fairfax family. Further, he was no stranger to the hardships of frontier travel having worked as a surveyor. Washington was also aided by his eagerness to gain a commission in the British Army.

On October 31, 1753, Washington received his commission and departed Williamsburg. He enlisted the assistance of a French-speaking interpreter, four experienced woodsmen, and well-known surveyor Christopher Gist who was knowledgeable in the customs and, to some degree, the language of native peoples in the region. Gist served as guide, translator, and assistant.

By the close of November, the small party reached the trading village of Logstown on the Ohio River. There Washington met in council with sachems from the area, reminding them of their alliances with the British and explaining the purpose of his mission. Washington and his party finally reached the French post at Fort Le Boeuf on the evening of December 11, escorted by Seneca chief Tanacharison (Half-King), two Iroquois chiefs, and a chief from the Delaware Nation.

The next day Washington met with the French commander, Jacques Le Gardeur and delivered Dinwiddie's letter. Two days later, Washington had his reply, a polite but firm refusal to vacate. During this timespan the weather turned significantly for the worse. Cold temperatures and continual snow made roads difficult to traverse. Washington, uneasy to get back too quickly to deliver a negative report to Governor Dinwiddie, decided to navigate through the woods by foot. After dangerous encounters with native tribes and deep snows, Washington reached the Allegheny with Gist early on the morning of Saturday, December 29.

Unfortunately, the river was not fully frozen as anticipated and the rushing water contained large chunks of ice in vast quantities. In order to cross the river the pair built a raft of logs using just one hatchet&mdashthe only tool they possessed&mdashlaboring all day until they finally finished after sunset. Using setting poles, Washington and Gist tried to maneuver through the ice-clogged water but the raft jammed against an ice pack before they were halfway across. Washington attempted to thrust the ice away, but the strong current pushed the ice blocks leading him to fall into the icy waters. Washington pulled himself back on the raft with the aid of Gist.

Struggling against the ice and water, numb and exhausted, the two were unable to successfully reach either shore. They decided to abandon the raft and wade through the freezing water to a nearby island, where they spent a miserable night in the severe weather. By morning, the river was frozen solid, and the two battered survivors walked their way to the far shore and to safety.

Washington finally reached Williamsburg by mid-January 1754 and delivered the French reply as well as his journal of the expedition to Dinwiddie. While the journey itself did not produce the desired results, it stands as an important development in the early stages of George Washington's career and notoriety as a result of the eventual publication of his journal.

Lengel, Edward G. General George Washington: A Military Life. Random House Digital, Inc., 2007.

Meade Stith Rasmussen, Walter and Tilton, Robert S. George Washington&mdashThe Man Behind the Myths. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999.

Washington, George. The Journal of Major George Washington, ed. Paul Royster, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, Lincoln).

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

The first Federal Reserve Board was officially sworn in on August 10, 1914. Over the years, the Board's leadership structure has evolved and adapted in the System's efforts to serve effectively the nation, the economy, and the American public.

Statutory changes to the Board's leadership structure occurred over time: one in 1922, major changes in 1935, and additional changes in 1977, 2010, and 2015. For a complete list of all Board members from 1914 to present, see the table at the bottom of this page.

Leadership Structure: 1914-36

Initially, the Federal Reserve Board consisted of seven members:

  • The Secretary of the Treasury and the Comptroller of the Currency, who were members ex officio (members by virtue of their office).
  • The U.S. President appointed the other five members, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
  • Of the five members appointed by the President, the President designated one as "governor" and one as "vice governor." The governor of the Federal Reserve Board, subject to its supervision, was the active executive officer.

The Act of June 3, 1922, increased the number of members appointed by the President from five to six.

Secretaries of the Treasury and Chairs of the Federal Reserve Board, 1913-36 1

Date of term Appointee
Dec. 23, 1913 - Dec. 15, 1918 W.G. McAdoo
Dec. 16, 1918 - Feb. 1, 1920 Carter Glass
Feb. 2, 1920 - Mar. 3, 1921 David F. Houston
Mar. 4, 1921 - Feb. 12, 1932 Andrew W. Mellon
Feb. 12, 1932 - Mar. 4, 1933 Ogden L. Mills 2
Mar. 4, 1933 - Dec. 31, 1933 William H. Woodin
Jan. 1, 1934 - Feb. 1, 1936 Henry Morgenthau, Jr.

1. The Secretary of the Treasury served as Chairman until the Banking Act of 1935, approved Aug. 23, 1935, which became effective on Feb. 1, 1936. Return to text

2. On February 12, 1932, Ogden L. Mills became ex-officio chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. (Annual Report, 1932, p.40). Return to text

Governors and Active Executive Officers of the Federal Reserve Board 1914-36 1

Date of term Appointee
Aug. 10, 1914 - Aug. 9, 1916 Charles S. Hamlin
Aug. 10, 1916 - Aug. 9, 1922 W.P.G. Harding
May 1, 1923 - Sept. 15, 1927 Daniel R. Crissinger
Oct. 4, 1927 - Aug. 31, 1930 Roy A. Young
Sept. 16, 1930 - May 10, 1933 Eugene Meyer
May 19, 1933 - Aug. 15, 1934 Eugene R. Black
Nov. 15, 1934 - Feb. 1, 1936 2 Marriner S. Eccles

1. The active executive officer of the Board was known as "Governor" until the passage of the Banking Act of 1935. Return to text

2. The members of the Board who went out of office on Feb. 1, 1936, were as follows: Marriner S. Eccles, J. J. Thomas, Charles S. Hamlin, Adolph C. Miller, George R. James, M. S. Szymczak (Annual Report, 1936, p. 44). Return to text

Vice Governors of the Federal Reserve Board, 1914-36

Date of term Appointee
Aug. 10, 1914 - Aug. 9, 1916 Frederic A. Delano
Aug. 10, 1916 - Aug. 9, 1918 Paul M. Warburg
Oct. 26, 1918 - Mar. 15, 1920 Albert Strauss
July 23, 1920 - Sept. 14, 1930 Edmund Platt
Aug. 21, 1934 - Feb. 10, 1936 J.J. Thomas

Leadership Structure: 1936-Present

The Banking Act of 1935 made several changes in the nomenclature and the structure of the Board. The Banking Act of 1935 renamed the "Federal Reserve Board" as the "Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System," the "governor" of the Board as the "chairman" and the "vice governor" as the "vice chairman" of the Board, and renamed "members" of the Board as "governors." The Banking Act of 1935 also made the following more structural changes:

  • increased the number of members of the Board appointed by the President from six to seven
  • required the President to designate one of the persons appointed as "chairman" of the Board and one as "vice chairman" of the Board, each to serve in such role for a term of four years
  • specified that the appointive members in office on the date of the act should continue to serve until February 1, 1936, or until their successors were appointed and had qualified thereafter, the members' terms should be 14 years
  • specified that the ex officio members in office on the date of the act (the Secretary of the Treasury and the Comptroller of the Currency) were to continue to serve as ex officio members only until February 1, 1936, but made no further provision for ex officio members
  • provided that the "chairman of the Board, subject to its supervision, shall be its active executive officer"

The Federal Reserve Reform Act of 1977 required the President to designate one of the persons appointed as "Chairman of the Board," by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and one as "Vice Chairman of the Board," by and with the consent of the Senate. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 required the President to designate, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a new "Vice Chairman for Supervision," who "shall develop policy recommendations for the Board regarding supervision and regulation of depository institution holding companies and other financial firms supervised by the Board and shall oversee the supervision and regulation of such firms." A 2015 statute required that the President, in selecting members of the Board, "shall appoint at least one member with demonstrated primary experience working in or supervising community banks having less than $10 billion in total assets."

Chairs and Active Executive Officers of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System 1936 - Present 1

Date of term Appointee
Feb. 1, 1936 2 - Jan. 31, 1948 Marriner S. Eccles
Apr. 15, 1948 - Mar. 31, 1951 Thomas B. McCabe
Apr. 2, 1951 - Jan. 31, 1970 Wm. McC. Martin, Jr
Feb. 1, 1970 - Jan. 31, 1978 Arthur F. Burns
Mar. 8, 1978 - Aug. 6, 1979 G. William Miller
Aug. 6, 1979 - Aug. 11, 1987 Paul A. Volcker
Aug. 11, 1987 - Jan. 31, 2006 Alan Greenspan
Feb. 1, 2006 - Jan. 31, 2014 Ben S. Bernanke
Feb. 3, 2014 - Feb. 3, 2018 Janet L. Yellen
Feb. 5, 2018 - Jerome H. Powell

1. The Banking Act of 1935, approved Aug. 23, 1935, changed the name of the Federal Reserve Board to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and created the position of Chairman and Vice Chairman. Previously, the Chairman was the Secretary of the Treasury. Return to text

2. Appointed as a member of the new Board (Annual Report, 1936, p. 44). Return to text

Vice Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System 1936 - Present

Date of term Appointee
Aug. 6, 1936 - Dec. 2, 1947 Ronald Ransom
Mar. 11, 1955 - Feb. 28, 1966 C. Canby Balderston
Mar. 1, 1966 - Apr. 30, 1973 J.L. Robertson
May 1, 1973 - Feb. 13, 1976 George W. Mitchell
Feb. 13, 1976 - Nov. 19, 1978 Stephen S. Gardner
July 27, 1979 - Feb. 11, 1982 Frederick H. Schultz
Mar. 31, 1982 - Apr. 30, 1986 Preston Martin
Aug. 4, 1986 - Aug. 3, 1990 Manuel H. Johnson
July 24, 1991 - Feb. 14, 1994 David W. Mullins, Jr.
June 27, 1994 - Jan. 31, 1996 Alan S. Blinder
June 25, 1996 - July 16, 1999 Alice M. Rivlin
Oct. 5, 1999 - Apr. 28, 2006 Roger W. Ferguson, Jr.
June 23, 2006 - June 23, 2010 Donald L. Kohn
Oct. 4, 2010 - Feb. 3, 2014 Janet L. Yellen
June 16, 2014 - Oct. 16, 2017 Stanley Fischer
Sept. 17, 2018 - Richard H. Clarida

Vice Chair for Supervision of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System 2017 - Present

Members of the Federal Reserve Board and Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System 1

Name and District Date of initial oath of office Other dates and information relating to membership
W.G. McAdoo
Secretary of the Treasury
Dec. 23, 1913 Dec. 15, 1918
John Skelton Williams 2
Comptroller of the Currency
Feb. 2, 1914 Mar. 2, 1921
Charles S. Hamlin
Aug. 10, 1914 Reappointed in 1916 and 1926. Served until Feb. 1936.
Paul M. Warburg
New York
Aug. 10, 1914 Term expired Aug. 9, 1918.
Frederic A. Delano
Aug. 10, 1914 Resigned July 21, 1918.
W.P.G. Harding
Aug. 10, 1914 Term expired Aug. 9, 1922.
Adolph C. Miller
San Francisco
Aug. 10, 1914 Reappointed in 1924. Reappointed in 1934 from the Richmond District. Served until Feb. 3, 1936.
Albert Strauss
New York
Oct. 26, 1918 Resigned Mar. 15, 1920.
Carter Glass
Secretary of the Treasury
Dec. 16, 1918 Feb. 1, 1920
Henry A. Moehlenpah
Nov. 10, 1919 Term expired Aug. 9, 1920.
David F. Houston
Secretary of the Treasury
Feb. 2, 1920 Mar. 3, 1921
Edmund Platt
New York
June 8, 1920 Reappointed in 1928. Resigned Sept. 14, 1930.
David C. Wills
Sept. 29, 1920 Term expired Mar. 4, 1921.
Andrew W. Mellon
Secretary of the Treasury
Mar. 4, 1921 Feb. 12, 1932
John R. Mitchell
May 12, 1921 Resigned May 12, 1923.
Milo D. Campbell
Mar. 14, 1923 Died Mar. 22, 1923.
Daniel R. Crissinger
Comptroller of the Currency
Mar. 17, 1921 Apr. 30, 1923
Daniel R. Crissinger
May 1, 1923 Resigned Sept. 15, 1927.
Henry M. Dawes
Comptroller of the Currency
May 1, 1923 Dec. 17, 1924
George R. James
St. Louis
May 14, 1923 Reappointed in 1931. Served until Feb. 3, 1936.
Edward H. Cunningham
May 14, 1923 Died Nov. 28, 1930.
Joseph W. McIntosh
Comptroller of the Currency
Dec. 20, 1924 Nov. 20, 1928
Roy A. Young
Oct. 4, 1927 Resigned Aug. 31, 1930.
J.W. Pole
Comptroller of the Currency
Nov. 21, 1928 Sept. 20, 1932
Eugene Meyer
New York
Sept. 16, 1930 Resigned May 10, 1933.
Wayland W. Magee
Kansas City
May 18, 1931 Term expired Jan. 24, 1933.
Ogden L. Mills
Secretary of the Treasury
Feb. 12, 1932 Mar. 4, 1933
William H. Woodin
Secretary of the Treasury
Mar. 4, 1933 Dec. 31, 1933
J.F.T. O'Connor
Comptroller of the Currency
May 11, 1933 Feb. 1, 1936
Eugene R. Black
May 19, 1933 Resigned Aug. 15, 1934.
M.S. Szymczak
June 14, 1933 Reappointed in 1936 and 1948. Resigned May 31, 1961.
J.J. Thomas
Kansas City
June 14, 1933 Served until Feb. 10, 1936.
Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
Secretary of the Treasury
Jan. 1, 1934 Feb. 1, 1936
Marriner S. Eccles
San Francisco
Nov. 15, 1934 Reappointed in 1936, 1940, and 1944. Resigned July 14, 1951.
Joseph A. Broderick
New York
Feb. 3, 1936 Resigned Sept. 30, 1937.
John K. McKee
Feb. 3, 1936 Served until Apr. 4, 1946.
Ronald Ransom
Feb. 3, 1936 Reappointed in 1942. Died Dec. 2, 1947.
Ralph W. Morrison
Feb. 10, 1936 Resigned July 9, 1936.
Chester C. Davis
June 25, 1936 Reappointed in 1940. Resigned Apr. 15, 1941.
Ernest G. Draper
New York
Mar. 30, 1938 Served until Sept. 1, 1950.
Rudolph M. Evans
Mar. 14, 1942 Served until Aug. 13, 1954.
James K. Vardaman, Jr.
St. Louis
Apr. 4, 1946 Resigned Nov. 30, 1958.
Lawrence Clayton
Feb. 14, 1947 Died Dec. 4, 1949.
Thomas B. McCabe
Apr. 15, 1948 Resigned Mar. 31, 1951.
Edward L. Norton
Sept. 1, 1950 Resigned Jan. 31, 1952.
Oliver S. Powell
Sept. 1, 1950 Resigned June 30, 1952.
Wm. McC. Martin, Jr.
New York
Apr. 2, 1951 Reappointed in 1956. Term expired Jan. 31, 1970.
A.L. Mills, Jr.
San Francisco
Feb. 18, 1952 Reappointed in 1958. Resigned Feb. 28, 1965.
J.L. Robertson
Kansas City
Feb. 18, 1952 Reappointed in 1964. Resigned Apr. 30, 1973.
C. Canby Balderston
Aug. 12, 1954 Served through Feb. 28, 1966.
Paul E. Miller
Aug. 13, 1954 Died Oct. 21, 1954.
Chas. N. Shepardson
Mar. 17, 1955 Retired Apr. 30, 1967.
G.H. King, Jr.
Mar. 25, 1959 Reappointed in 1960. Resigned Sept. 18, 1963.
George W. Mitchell
Aug. 31, 1961 Reappointed in 1962. Served until Feb. 13, 1976.
J. Dewey Daane
Nov. 29, 1963 Served until Mar. 8, 1974.
Sherman J. Maisel
San Francisco
Apr. 30, 1965 Served through May 31, 1972.
Andrew F. Brimmer
Mar. 9, 1966 Resigned Aug. 31, 1974.
William W. Sherrill
May 1, 1967 Reappointed in 1968. Resigned Nov. 15, 1971.
Arthur F. Burns
New York
Jan. 31, 1970 Term began Feb. 1, 1970. Resigned Mar. 31, 1978.
John E. Sheehan
St. Louis
Jan. 4, 1972 Resigned June 1, 1975.
Jeffrey M. Bucher
San Francisco
June 5, 1972 Resigned Jan. 2, 1976.
Robert C. Holland
Kansas City
June 11, 1973 Resigned May 15, 1976.
Henry C. Wallich
Mar. 8, 1974 Resigned Dec. 15, 1986.
Philip E. Coldwell
Oct. 29, 1974 Served through Feb. 29, 1980.
Philip C. Jackson, Jr.
July 14, 1975 Resigned Nov. 17, 1978.
J. Charles Partee
Jan. 5, 1976 Served until Feb. 7, 1986.
Stephen S. Gardner
Feb. 13, 1976 Died Nov. 19, 1978.
David M. Lilly
June 1, 1976 Resigned Feb. 24, 1978.
G. William Miller
San Francisco
Mar. 8, 1978 Resigned Aug. 6, 1979.
Nancy H. Teeters
Sept. 18, 1978 Served through June 27, 1984.
Emmett J. Rice
New York
June 20, 1979 Resigned Dec. 31, 1986.
Frederick H. Schultz
July 27, 1979 Served through Feb. 11, 1982.
Paul A. Volcker
Aug. 6, 1979 Resigned August 11, 1987.
Lyle E. Gramley
Kansas City
May 28, 1980 Resigned Sept. 1, 1985.
Preston Martin
San Francisco
Mar. 31, 1982 Resigned April 30, 1986.
Martha R. Seger
July 2, 1984 Resigned March 11, 1991.
Wayne D. Angell
Kansas City
Feb. 7, 1986 Served through Feb. 9, 1994.
Manuel H. Johnson
Feb. 7, 1986 Resigned August 3, 1990.
H. Robert Heller
San Francisco
Aug. 19, 1986 Resigned July 31, 1989.
Edward W. Kelley, Jr.
May 26, 1987 Reappointed in 1990 resigned Dec. 31, 2001.
Alan Greenspan
New York
Aug. 11, 1987 Reappointed in 1992 term expired Jan. 31, 2006.
John P. LaWare
Aug. 15, 1988 Resigned April 30, 1995.
David W. Mullins, Jr.
St. Louis
May 21, 1990 Resigned Feb. 14, 1994.
Lawrence B. Lindsey
Nov. 26, 1991 Resigned Feb. 5, 1997.
Susan M. Phillips
Dec. 2, 1991 Served through June 30, 1998.
Alan S. Blinder
June 27, 1994 Term expired Jan. 31, 1996.
Janet L. Yellen
San Francisco
Aug. 12, 1994 Resigned Feb. 17, 1997 reappointed Oct. 4, 2010. Resigned Feb. 3, 2018.
Laurence H. Meyer
St. Louis
June 24, 1996 Term expired Jan. 31, 2002.
Alice M. Rivlin
June 25, 1996 Resigned July 16, 1999.
Roger W. Ferguson, Jr.
Nov. 5, 1997 Reappointed in 2001 resigned April 28, 2006
Edward M. Gramlich
Nov. 5, 1997 Resigned August 31, 2005.
Susan S. Bies
Dec. 7, 2001 Resigned March 30, 2007.
Mark W. Olson
Dec. 7, 2001 Resigned June 30, 2006.
Ben S. Bernanke
Aug. 5, 2002 Resigned June 21, 2005 reappointed Feb. 1, 2006
Resigned Jan. 31, 2014.
Donald L. Kohn
Kansas City
Aug. 5, 2002 Resigned September 1, 2010.
Kevin M. Warsh
New York
Feb. 24, 2006 Resigned April 2, 2011.
Randall S. Kroszner
Mar. 1, 2006 Resigned January 21, 2009.
Frederic S. Mishkin
Sept. 5, 2006 Resigned August 31, 2008.
Elizabeth A. Duke
Aug. 5, 2008 Resigned August 31, 2013.
Daniel K. Tarullo
Jan. 28, 2009 Resigned April 5, 2017.
Sarah Bloom Raskin
Oct. 4, 2010 Resigned March 13, 2014.
Jerome H. Powell
May 25, 2012 Reappointed June 16, 2014.
Jeremy C. Stein
May 30, 2012 Resigned May 28, 2014.
Stanley Fischer
New York
May 28, 2014 Resigned Oct. 16, 2017.
Lael Brainard
June 16, 2014
Randal K. Quarles
Kansas City
Oct. 13, 2017
Richard H. Clarida
Sept. 17, 2018
Michelle W. Bowman
St. Louis
Nov. 26, 2018
Christopher J. Waller
Dec. 18, 2020

1. The Banking Act of 1935, approved Aug. 23, 1935, changed the name of the Federal Reserve Board to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. It also changed the title from Members to Governors. Section 203(a) provided that: "Hereafter the Federal Reserve Board shall be known as the 'Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,' and the governor and vice governor of the Federal Reserve Board shall be known as the 'chairman' and the 'vice chairman' respectively, of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System." Return to text

2. The Comptroller of the Currency served as a member of the Federal Reserve Board until the implementation of the Banking Act of 1935 on Feb. 1, 1936. Return to text

The history of every governor’s seat in every state, in 1 chart

Last September, we gave you a chart showing the history of every seat in the U.S. Senate since the beginning of our Republic. Today, something slightly different: The history of every governor.

This was inspired by the trivia question in today's "Read In" newsletter. "Over the last decade, Republicans have held the governorships of 44 states," it asked. "Can you name the six states that Republicans haven't managed to win?" Obviously the only way to answer that is to figure out every governor of every state by year and look at it visually. (Editor's note: Um, ok.)

Here's the chart. The colors correspond to party, as you'd expect. It's awarded to whichever party held control for the majority of the year. If Democrats held the governor's seat through May and the GOP the rest of the year, it's red. Click to make it bigger, by the way. It's a lot of data.

You can see here that the answer to the trivia question is: Washington, Oregon, Montana, West Virginia, Delaware and New Hampshire. (OK, we cut and pasted that from the bottom of the newsletter.) But this chart shows us so much more.

Notice that this is arrayed from left to right by the percentage of time the state had a Democratic governor. See how there's more blue at the left and more red at the right? That doesn't correspond with the way we look at red and blue states now, of course, given the late-20th-century flip of the South from blue to red and (less so) the Northeast from red to blue.

If you compare the percentage of time the state was led by a Democrat (in years, not governors) with how often it was led by a Republican, the red-blue map looks like this.

(The chart at top uses percent of all governor-years that were Democratic to do the ordering. The map only compares Democrats and Republicans, not Democrats, Republicans and everything else.)

We can also figure out the years that were the most and least red or blue. The peak density of Democratic governors came in the early 1850s -- right when the Republican party came into being. The GOP's peak density came a few years later -- after the Democratic South was routed in the Civil War.

If you go back only 100 years, you can see that the most heavily partisan periods in state houses were bracketing the election of Franklin Roosevelt. Before the market crash, more states had Republican governors. After FDR, Democrats peaked.

The moral of the story is this: Any dominance in state or national capitals is fleeting. And: History can be awfully pretty.

Qing Governors and Their Provinces: The Evolution of Territorial Administration in China, 1644-1796

During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the province emerged as an important element in the management of the expanding Chinese empire, with governors - those in charge of these increasingly influential administrative units - playing key roles. R. Kent Guy’s comprehensive study of this shift concentrates on the governorship system during the reigns of the Shunzhi, Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong emperors, who ruled China from 1644 to 1796.

In the preceding Ming dynasty (1368–1644), the responsibilities of provincial officials were ill-defined and often shifting Qing governors, in contrast, were influential members of a formal administrative hierarchy and enjoyed the support of the central government, including access to resources. These increasingly powerful officials extended the court’s influence into even the most distant territories of the Qing empire.

Both masters of the routine processes of administration and troubleshooters for the central government, Qing governors were economic and political administrators who played crucial roles in the management of a larger and more complex empire than the Chinese had ever known. Administrative concerns varied from region to region: Henan was dominated by the great Yellow River, which flowed through the province the Shandong governor dealt with the exchange of goods, ideas, and officials along the Grand Canal in Zhili, relations between civilians and bannermen in the strategically significant coastal plain were key and in northwestern Shanxi, governors dealt with border issues.

Qing Governors and Their Provinces uses the records of governors’ appointments and the laws and practices that shaped them to reconstruct the development of the office of provincial governor and to examine the histories of governors’ appointments in each province. Interwoven throughout is colorful detail drawn from the governors’ biographies.

Winner of the Honorable Mention, Joseph Levenson Prize (pre-1900 category), Association for Asian Studies.

Watch the video: Introduction to Governors - Governors in Dynamics of Machinery - Dynamics of Machinery